Research Papers and Academia

Modern Dictionaries:

Dicks, Ian D. (ed), English – Ciyawo Learner’s Dictionary/Dikishonale ja Ŵakulijiganya Cingelesi – Ciyawo, Mzuzu: Mzuni Press, 2018. and

Dicks, Ian D. (ed), Ciyawo – Cingelesi Dikishonale ja Ŵakulijiganya/Learner’s Dictionary Ciyawo – English, Mzuzu: Mzuni Press, 2022. and

Kishindo, Pascal J. (ed), Mgopolela Maloŵe jwa Ciyawo (Ciyawo Dictionary), Blantyre: Dzuka Publishing and Centre for Language Studies, 2013.

Ngunga, Armindo. Pequeno Dicionário: Ciyaawo – Português/Português – Ciyaawo. Maputo: Associação Progresso, 2011.

N’suenene, P. A., Ausse, L., & Marcelo, M. E. Línguas de Moçambique: Vocabulário de Ciyao. Nampula: SIL International. 2009.

Taji, Julius J. & Languages of Tanzania Project, Chiyao: Kamusi ya Kiyao-Kiingereza-Kiswahili ikiwa na Faharasa za Kiingereza & Swahili (Yao-English-Swahili Dictionary with English & Swahili Glosses), Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam, 2017.

English resources and academia:

Featured Website: "The Queen is the Boss! On Gender and Power in Northern Mozambique: An Online Oral History Exhibition". This online exhibition is trilingual (English, Portuguese, and Mozambican Ciyaawo).


Abdallah. Y., The Yaos; Chiikala cha WaYao, (ed & trans. M. Sanderson), London: Frank Cass, 1973. Revised edition of the 1919 publication. Contains a biographical introduction about Abdallah by Edward Alpers.

Abdallah, Y.B., Chikala cha Wa Yao (The Yaos), (ed. & trans. M. Sanderson), Zomba: Government Printing Office Nyasaland, 1919.

Alpers, E., “Trade, and Society among the Yao in the Nineteenth Century”, Journal of African History, 10, (3) (1969), pp. 405-420.

Alpers, E., “Towards a History of the Expansion of Islam in East Africa: the Matrilineal Peoples of the Southern Interior”, in Ranger & Kimambo (eds), The Historical Study of African Religion with Special Reference to East and Central Africa, pp.172-201. London: Heinemann, 1972.

Alpers, E., Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa. London: Heinemann, 1975.

Alves, Beatriz Madaleno. 2023. "Beyond the Material: A Case Study of the Yaawo Beaded Hair Combs for Repatriating Agency", Revista de História da Arte, 16 (December): 38–63.

Anderson-Morshead, A., The History of the Universities Mission to Central Africa 1859-1896. London: UMCA, 1897. Available for digital download here: A New and Revised edition up to 1909 is available here:

Argente, Rosemary. Blantyre and Yao Women. Mzuni Press, 2018.

Baker, C.A., Buchanan, J., Johnston’s Administration. Zomba: Govt Press, 1970.

Bonate, L.J. “Yao, Islam and the” Retrieved from

Bone, D. S., “Islam in Malawi”, Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 13, (2), (1982), pp. 126-138.

Bone, D. S. “The Development of Islam in Malawi and the Response of the Christian Churches: 1940-1986.”, BICMURA, vol. 5, (4), (1987), pp. 7-24.

Boucher, C., “Birth Rites”, Mua Mission, unpublished.

Boucher, C., “Jando”, Mua Mission, unpublished.

Boucher, C., “Msondo”, Mua Mission, unpublished.

Boucher, C., “Yao Chieftainship”, Mua Mission, unpublished.

Chaponda, O., “The Christianised Yao Initiation Rite of Mangochi Catholic Diocese: Assessing an Experiment in Inculturation”, M.A. module, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1999.

Chimombo, S. Malawian Oral Literature, Zomba: Centre for Social Research, 1988.

Chimombo, S. “Oral Literature Research in Malawi: A Survey and Bibliography, 1870-1986”, Research in African Literature, vol. 18, (4), (Winter 1987), pp. 485-498. 

Chipeperu cha kulijiganya chisungu, 1892

Corbett, Jack, “Participation, Sponsorship and Development: A Case Study of Community Ownership in the Namwera and Chiponde Afforestation Project“, The University of Melbourne, 2010.

Dicks, Ian, “The Islamisation of the Yao of Malawi”, M.A. Module, Chancellor College, 1998.

Dicks, Ian, “It Takes an Initiation to Make a Yawo Chief“, Religion in Malawi, No. 16 (Nov 2010-Nov 2011), pp 3-11.

Dicks, Ian, Wisdom of the Yawo People: Under the Elephant’s Belly You Can’t Pass Twice , Kachere Press, 2006.

Dicks, Ian, An African Worldview: the Muslim Amacinga Yawo of Southern Malawi,  Kachere Press, 2012.

Fiedler, K., Christianity and African Culture; Conservative German Protestant Missionaries in Tanzania, 1900-1940, Leiden/New York/Koln: E. J. Brill, 1996.

Gale, W.D., Zambezi Sunrise, Howard B. Timmins, Cape Town, 1958.

Greenstein, R., “The Nyasalands Policy Toward’s African Muslims”, From Nyasaland to Malawi, (ed), R.J. MacDonald, Nairobi: East Africa Publishing House, 1975, pp. 144-168

Hanna, A. J., The Beginning of Nyasaland and North Eastern Rhodesia: 1859-95, Clarendon Press, London, 1956.

Heckel, B., “The Yao Tribe; Their Culture and Education”, in Institute of Education Reports, London: Oxford University Press, 1935, pp. 8-42.

Hetherwick, A., “Note on Yao”, in Nyassa News, Nov. 1893.

Hetherwick, A., A Handbook of the Yao Language, Aberdeen: 1889. Available for digital download here: The 1902 second edition available here:

Hetherwick, A., “Some Animistic Beliefs among the Yaos of British Central Africa”, Journal of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 32, (1902), pp. 89-95.

Hetherwick, A., “Islam and Christianity in Nyasaland”, Muslim World, vol. 17, (2), (April 1927) pp.184-186.

Hetherwick, A., The Gospel and the African; Croall Lectures, Edinburgh: T and T. Clark, 1932.

Houston, Tobias J., “Utenga Wambone—the ‘Good News’: An Exploration of Historical Ciyawo Bible Translations and Linguistic Texts”, Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae, 2022, pp. 1–18. or

Houston, Tobias J., "The Supreme Being in Ciyawo Bible translation and managing the choice of adequate terms for God", Acta Theologica, 42(2), 2022, pp. 206-227. or

Houston, Tobias J., "A Sociolinguistic and Extensibility Survey of Ciyawo Language Communities in Mozambique’s Niassa Province", Journal of Language Survey Reports, 2023. 

Hyman, Larry M, and Armindo. Ngunga. 1997. “Two Kinds of Moraic Nasal in Ciyao.” Studies in African Linguistics 26 (2): 131–63.

Hyman, Larry M, and Armindo Ngunga. 1994. “On the Non-Universality of Tonal Association ‘Conventions’: Evidence from Ciyao.” Phonology 11 (1): 25–68.

Hynde, R S. First Yao-English Primer Prepared for Use in the Yao-Speaking Schools of the Church of Scotland Mission, British Central Africa. British Central Africa: Church of Scotland Mission, 1892.

Hynde, R S. 1894. Second Yao-English Primer. London: S.P.C.K.

Hynde, R S. Marriage and relationships among the YaosNiyasa News, 7, 1895.

Ibik, J. O., The Law of Marriage and Divorce; The Yao, London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1970.

Jhala, V.L., The Shire Highlands: The Establishment and Maintenance of Yao Dominance. Zomba: Chancellor College, History Seminar Paper, 1980.

Johnson, W., “Mohammedism and the Yaos”. Central Africa, vol. 339, (March, 1911), pp. 57-61.

Johnson, W., “The Yao. A defense and a suggestion”. Nyassa News, 2, 1893.

Johnson, W., My African Reminiscences. London: UMCA, 1924. Modern reprint archived here:

Johnston, H.H., British Central Africa (1969 New York: Negro University Press edn.), 1897.

Johnston, H.H., View and Reviews: The Outlook of an Anthropologist, London: Williams & Norgale, 1912.

Katto, Jonna. 2020. “Liberating Taste: Memories of War, Food and Cooking in Northern Mozambique”. Journal of Southern African Studies. 46 (5): 965-984.

Katto, Jonna. “‘The rainha is the boss!’: On Masculinities, Time and Precolonial Women of Authority in Northern Mozambique”. Gender & History., January 2022, pp.1–23.

Katto, Jonna. 2023. "Times Told, Lived, and Remembered: The Multitemporality of the Present in Yaawo Oral Histories of Gendered Power in Northern Mozambique. Nordic Journal of African Studies. 32 (3): 326–348.

King, N. Q. and Fiedler K. (eds), Robin Lamburn – From a Missionary’s Notebook: The Yao of Tunduru and other Essays, Fort Lauderdale: Verlag Breitenbach, 1991.

Kubik, G., “Boy’s Circumcision School of the Yao; Malawi South Eastern Africa”, Gottingen: Ethnol, vol. 9/1-D1244, (1979), pp. 3-19.

Lamba, I. C., “The Missionary and Ethnography in Malawi; a Study of Malawi and the Yao to 1920”, Society of Malawi Journal, vol. 38, (1), (1985), pp. 62-79.

Lamburn, R.G.P., “Some notes on Yao”, in Tanganyica Notes, 29, pp. 73-84. 1950.

Lawson, Audrey. “An outline of the relationship system of the Nyanja and Yao tribes in South Nyasaland”, African Studies, 8(4), 180-190, 1949.

Longwe, H., Christians by Grace – Baptists by Choice: a History of the Baptist Convention of Malawi. Kachere Press, 2013.

Macdonald, Duff., “Yao and Nyanja Tales”, Bantu Studies, 12 (4), pp. 251-285. 1938.

Macdonald, Duff., “East African Tales”, Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1881.

Macdonald, Duff., Africana; The Heart of Heathen Africa, 2 vols, London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co, 1882. Volume 1 available for digital download here: Volume 2:

MacMillan, H., The African Lakes Company and the Makololo 1878-1884. Publ. in: R.J. MacDonald (ed) From Nyasaland to Malawi Nairobi. East Africa Publ. pp65-85, 1975.

Mair, L., “A Yao Girl’s Initiation”, Man, 98, (May, 1951), pp. 60-63.

Maples, Chauncy. “Unangu”, Nyassa News, 2. 1893.

Maples, Chauncy. 1888. Yao-English Vocabulary. Zanzibar: Universities’ Mission Press.

Maples, E.G., Chauncy Maples, D.D., F.R.G.S., pioneer missionary in east central Africa for nineteen years and Bishop of Likoma, Lake Nyasa, A.D. 1895 : a sketch of his life, with selections from his letters, London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1897. Available for digital download here: 

Mapuranga, M.M., “Evolutionism” as a Basis of Colonial Administrative Ideology: The Case of Malawi in the Era of H H Johnston 1891-1896. Zomba: J. Soc. Science 6:109-120, 1977.

Marjomaa, R. “The martial spirit : Yao soldiers in British service in Nyasaland (Malawi), 1895-1939”, Journal of African History 44(3), 413-432, 2003.

Martin, B., Muslim Brotherhoods in 19th Century Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

McCracken, J., The Nineteenth Century in Malawi. Publ. in T.O. Ranger (ed) Aspects of Central African History London: Heinemann pp 97-111, 1968.

Meeussen, Achille E. (1971). “Notes on conjugation and tone in Yao.” Africana Linguistica 5: 197-203.

Mgeni, M., “Initiation rites into adulthood are prominent in many Malawian societies; my reasons and suggestions for a better inculturation: A case study- Jando at Msembuka Village, T/A Chamba”, Chancellor College, unpublished document, 1996.

Mgeni, M., “Girls Initiation in a Yao setting and Christian Attitude: A case study at Msembuka village, Chikala Plateau, T.A. Chamba”, Chancellor College, unpublished document, 1996.

Mitchell J. C., “The Yao of Southern Malawi”, Africa, vol. 19, (1949), pp. 94-100.

Mitchell J. C., “The Yao of Southern Malawi”, in E. Colson and M. Gluckman (eds), Seven Tribes of Central Africa, London: Oxford University Press, 1951.

Mitchell, J. C., “Prelimary Notes on the Land Tenure and Agriculture among the Machinga Yao”, The Nyasaland Journal, vol. 5, (2), (1952), pp. 18-30.

Mitchell, J. C., The Yao Village: A Study in the Social Structure of a Malawian Tribe, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1956.

Mitchell, J. C., “A Note on the African Conception of Causality”, The Nyasaland Journal, vol. 5, (2), (1952), pp. 51-58.

Morris, B., The Power of Animals: An Ethnography Oxford: Berg, 1998.

Morris, B., The Ivory Trade in Pre-Colonial Malawi. Society of Malawi Journal. 59/2: 6-23, 1998.

Morris, B., The Rise and Fall of the Yao Chiefdoms. Society of Malawi Journal. 67/1, 2014.

Msiska, A., “Towards a Cultural History of Malawi; The Case of Colonialism & Yao Initiation Rites in Southern Malawi 1891-1961”, M.A. Thesis, University of Malawi, 1992.

Nelson H., Malawi: A Country Study, Washington: US Government Print, 1975.

Newitt, Malyn, A History of Mozambique, Witswatersrand University Press, 1995.

Ngunga, Armindo. “Class 5 Allomorphy in Ciyao.” Studies in African Linguistics26 (2): 165–92, 1997.

Ngunga, Armindo. Phonology and Morphology of the Ciyao Verb. Stanford, Calif: CSLI Publications, 2000.

Ngunga, Armindo. Elementos de gramática da língua Yao. Maputo: Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, 2002.

Oliver, R., Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa. London: Chatto & Windus, 1957.

Peace Corps Chiyao Trainee’s Manual, Lilongwe, 1998.

Phiri, D.D., History of Malawi: From Earliest Times to the Year 1915. Blantyre: CLAIM, 2004.

Phiri, K., “Yao Intrusion into Southern Malawi, Nyanja Resistance and Colonial Conquest, 1830-1900”, Trans-African Journal of History, vol. 13, (1984), pp. 157-163.

Phiri, K., Political Change Among the Chewa and Yao of the Lake Malawi Region 1750-1900. Publ in A.I. Salim (ed) State Formation in Eastern Africa. Nairobi: Heinemann pp 53-69, 1984.

Price, T. “Yao Origins”, The Nyasaland Journal, vol. 17, (2), 1964, pp. 11-16.

Prins, A.H., The Swahili speaking peoples of Zanzibar, and East Africa Coast, International African Institute, London, 1960.

Rangeley, W., “The Amacinga Yao”, The Nyasaland Journal, vol. 15, (2), 1962, pp. 40-70. Available at the Society of Malawi, Blantyre (

Rangeley, W., “The Ayao”, The Nyasaland Journal, vol. 16, (1), 1963, pp. 7-27. Available at the Society of Malawi, Blantyre (

Rau, W., Cultural Atlas of Africa, J. Murray (ed), Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1981.

Riedel, Kristian, and Julius Taji. 2022. “Animacy-based concord in Chiyao”. South African Journal of African Languages. 42 (2): 190-199.

Robinson, Amanda Lea, “Brothers of a Dierent Land: National Identification Among the Yao of Malawi and Mozambique”, Stanford University, 2011. [download here]

Ross, K. R., (ed), “Mponda Mission Diary 1889-1891”, Christianity in Malawi, Gweru: Mambo press, 1996.

Sanderson, G. M., A Dictionary of the Yao Language, Zomba: The Government Printer, 1954.

Schoffeleers, J. M., and Roscoe, A. A., Land of Fire; Oral Literature from Malawi, Limbe: Popular Publications, 1987.

Schoffeleers, J. M., Religion and the Dramatisation of Life, Blantyre: Claim, 1997.

Soko, B., “Traditional Forms of Instruction: The Case of the Jando Initiation Ceremony”, Catching the Wind: Oral Tradition and Education, Durban: (1989), pp. 147-161.

Stannus, H. S. and Davey, J. “The Initiation Ceremony for Boys Among the Yao of Nyasaland”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 43, (1913), pp. 119-123.

Stannus, H. S., “Notes on Some Tribes of British Central Africa”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. XL, (1910), pp. 285-355.

Stannus, H. S., “The Wayao of Nyasaland”, Harvard African Studies, III, (1922).

Steere, Edward., Collections for a Handbook of the Yao Language, London: SPCK (1871) Available for digital download here:

Stigand, C. H., “Notes on Natives of Nyassaland, N.E. Rhodesia and Portuguese Zambezia; their arts, customs and modes of subsistence”, Journal of the Royal Anthropology Institute, XXXVII, 6, London, 1907.

Taji, Julius J. 2017. “Object marking strategies in Chiyao”. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of African Linguistics, Kyoto 2015.

Taji, Julius. 2020. “Discourse roles of particles in Chiyao”. JULACE: Journal of the University of Namibia Language Centre. 4 (1): 1-14.

Taji, Julius. 2020. “Definiteness in Chiyao”. Ghana Journal of Linguistics. 9 (2): 44-66.

Taji, Julius. 2020. “Verb stem influence on object marking in Chiyao1”. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. 38 (4): 351-365.

Taji, Julius J. 2014. “Grammatical Relations in Chiyao”. Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies. 42: 149-177.

Tew, Mari, Peoples of the Lake Nyassa Region, International African Institute, Oxford, 1950.

Thorold, A., ‘The fundamentalist challenge, or rehinging the pendulum’ (guest editorial) Anthropology Today 21(4): 1-2, 2005.

Thorold, A., ‘Metamorphoses of the Yao Muslims’ in Louis Brenner (ed.) Muslim Identity and Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, London: Hurst & Co. and Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1993.

Thorold, A., ‘The persistence of tribe? The case of southern Malawi’, Alternation 2(2): 74-89, 1995.

Thorold, A., ‘The politics of mysticism: Sufism and Yao identity in southern Malawi’ Journal of Contemporary African Studies 15(1): 107-117, 1997.

Thorold, A., ‘Regionalism, Tribalism and Multi-Party Democracy: the case of Malawi’ South African Journal of International Affairs 7(2): 135-139, 2000.

Thorold, A., ‘Sufi and sukuti in southern Malawi’ in David Bone (ed.) Malawi’s Muslims: Historical Perspectives, Blantyre: CLAIM, 2001.

Thorold, A., ‘Yao Conversion to Islam’ Cambridge Anthropology 12(2): 18-28, 1987

Thorold, A., ‘The Yao Muslims: Religion and Social Change in Southern Malawi‘, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1995. Available here:

Thorold, A., ‘The Yao’ in Melvin Ember and Carol Ember (eds.) Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement, New York: Macmillan, 2002.

Trimingham, J. S., Islam in East Africa, Oxford: Clarendon, 1964.

van Kohl, Willemijn, “Ummah in Zomba: Transnational Influences on Reformist Muslims in Malawi”, Religion in Malawi, No. 16 (Nov 2010-Nov 2011), pp 28-40. [offsite link here]

Vaughan, M., Kinship and Class: Stratification in the Zomba Area of Southern Malawi 1800-1914. Zomba. Chancellor College: History Seminar Paper, 1978.

Webster, B., “Yao Hill to Mulanje Mountain Ivory Slaves & the South Western Expansion of the Yao, 1600-1865”, Staff Research Paper, University of Malawi, History Department, 1977.

West, Harry G. Kupilikula: Governance and the Invisible Realm in Mozambique. University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Whiteley, Wilfred Howell. A Study of Yao Sentences, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Worsfold, W.B., Portuguese Nyassaland; an account of the discovery, native population, agricultural and mineral resources, and present administration of the territory of the Nyassa Company, with a review of the Portuguese rule on the east coast of Africa, London, 1899.

Young, E., Nyassa, a Journal of adventures, London, 1877. Available for digital download here:

Zimba, Benigna, “‘Achivanjila I’ and the making of Niassa slave routes” In: Zimba, B., Alpers, E. A. and Isaacman, A. (eds.) Slave routes and oral tradition in south eastern Africa, 2005, Maputo: Filsom, pp. 219-251

The Village that Vanished front cover

The Village that Vanished

Written by Ann Grifalconi, illustrated by Kadir Nelson. Released 2004.


Young Abikanile and all of the villagers of Yao feel safe hidden deep within the African jungle. But word has come that the slavers are on their way! Abikanile looks to her mother and her grandmother for strength and guidance. These two brave women come up with a plan to fool the slavers and protect their tribe. But as the villagers retreat into the forest, Abikanile finds that she too has the courage to help her people stay safe and free. See on Amazon.


Balsan, Francois — Terres Vierges au Mozambique, 1960.

Thorold, A., ‘Le rituel soufi et la construction de l’identite musulmane yao’ in Veronique Faure (ed.) Dynamiques religieuses en Afrique australe, Paris: Karthala, 2000.


Lunati, A — “La tribu ‘Yao’. Storia, etnografia, costumi”, in Missioni Consolata, Torino, no. 3, 5, 7, pp. 40-41, 64-66, 88-90, ano 1948.

Recursos no Português:

Antonio, Augusto — Estudos psicotecnicos–nivel intelectual de algumas tribos de Mocambique. Porto 1956.

Brito, A. da Rocha — “O rito da circuncisao entre os indigenas”, in Boletim da Sociedade de Estudos de Mocambique, 1 (4), 23-30, 1932.

Cardozo, Augusto — Viagem de exploracao ao Niassa, Soc. Geog. Lisboa, 1886.

Dupeyron, Pedro. Pequeno vademecum da lingua Bantu na provincia de Mocambique, ou, Breve estudo da lingua Chi-Yao ou Adjaua: comparada com os dialectos de Sena, Tete e Quelimane e seguida d’um vocabulario da mesma lingua. Lisboa: Administracao do Novo Mensageiro do Coracao de Jesus, 1909

Eca, Vicente de Almedia — O Niassa Portugues. Lisboa, 1899.

Lacerda, D. Jose de — Exame das viagens do Dr. Livingston. Lisboa, 1867.

Lobato, Sousa A. — “Monografia etnografica original sobre o povo ajaua”, in Boletim da Sociedade de Estudos de Mocambique, 19 (63), pp. 7-17, Lourenco Marques, 1940.

Ngunga, Armindo. Pequeno Dicionário: Ciyaawo – Português/Português – Ciyaawo. Maputo: Associação Progresso, 2011.

N’suenene, P. A., Ausse, L., & Marcelo, M. E. Línguas de Moçambique: Vocabulário de Ciyao. Nampula: SIL International. 2009.

Ornelas, Aires de — Racas e Linguas Indigenas de Mocambique. Lisboa, Soc. Geog. Lisboa, 1901.

Peirone, Frederico Jose — A Tribo Ajaua do Alto Niassa (Mocambique) e Alguns Aspectos da sua Problematica Neo-Islamica. Junta de Investigacoes do Ultramar, Lisboa, Portugal, 1967.

Povo Yao: Ontem, Hoje e Amanha. Diocese de Lichinga, Moçambique.

Relatorios da Companhia do Niassa — Ocupacao das terras do Mataca. Moc, 1913.

Santos Junior — “Alguns aspectos da IV Campanha da Missao antropologica de Mocambique”, in Bulletin de la Societe Portugaise de sciences naturelles, tomo XV, no 23, Porto, 1947.

Santos Junior — Antropologia de Mocambique, Porto, 1956.

Silva Rego, A. — Alguns problemas sociologico-missionarios da African Negra. Junta de Investigacoes do Ultramar, Lisboa, 1960.

Silva Rego, A. — Curso de Missionologia. Agencia-Geral do Ultramar, Lisboa, 1956.

Silva Rego, A. — Licoes de Missionologia. Junta de Investigacoes do Ultramar, Lisboa, 1961.

Sousa, Eng. Figueiredo de Gomes e — Ensaios sobre a Colonizacao do Distrito do Niassa. Bol. Soc. Est. Moc., 1934.

N. Valdez dos Santos — O Desconhecido Niassa, Junta de Investigacoes do Ultramar, Lisboa, Portugal, 1964.

Viana, M. Jose de — Da tatuagem “nembo” entre os Wa-Yao. Lisboa, Bol. Ger. das Col., 1947.

Viana, M. Jose de — Dicionário de Português-Chi-Yao e Chi-Yao-Português. Elementos de Gramatica, Memórias do Instituto de Investigação Científica de Moçambique 3:1-172, 1961.

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